The literature contains a wide range of response data describing the biomechanics of isolated body regions. Current data for the validation of frontal anthropomorphic test devices and human body computational models lack, however, a detailed description of the whole-body response to loading with contemporary restraints in automobile crashes. This study presents data from 14 frontal sled tests describing the physical response of postmortem human surrogates (PMHS) in the following frontal crash environments: A) (5 tests) driver position, force-limited 3-point belt plus airbag restraint (FLB+AB), 48 km/h ΔV. B) (3 tests) passenger position, FLB+AB restraint, 48 km/h ΔV. C) (3 tests) passenger position, standard (not force-limited) 3-point belt plus air bag restraint (SB+AB), 48 km/h ΔV. D) (3 tests) passenger position, standard 3-point belt restraint (SB), 29 km/h ΔV. Reported data include x-axis and z-axis (SAE occupant reference frame) accelerations of the head, spine (upper, middle, and lower), and pelvis; rate of angular rotation of the head about y-axis; displacements of the head, upper spine, pelvis and knee relative to the vehicle buck; and deformation contours of the upper and lower chest. A variety of kinematic trends are identified across the different test conditions, including a decrease in head and thorax excursion and a change in the nature of the excursion in the driver position compared to the passenger position. Despite this increase in forward excursion when compared to the driver's side FLB+AB tests, the passenger's side FLB+AB tests resulted in greater peak thoracic (T8) x-axis accelerations (passenger's side -29 g; driver's side -22 g;) and comparable maximum chest deflection (passenger's side - 23+/-3.1% of the undeformed chest depth; driver's side - 23+/-5.6%; ). In the 48 km/h passenger's side tests, the head excursion associated with the force-limiting belt system was approximately 15% greater than that for a standard belt system in tests that were otherwise identical. This was accompanied by a decrease in chest deflection of approximately 20% with the force-limiting system. Despite the decrease in test speed, the 29 km/h passenger's side tests with standard (not force-limiting) 3-point belt restraints resulted in maximum chest deflection (16+/-5.6% average) comparable to that observed in the 48 km/h, FLB+AB, driver's side tests (21+/-3.1% average). Finally, forward head excursion was slightly higher in the 29 km/h passenger's side tests (33+/-1.1 cm average) than in the 48 km/h driver's side tests (27+/-3.7 cm average), and was lower than that in the 48 km/h FLB+AB (58+/-4.4 cm average) and SB+AB (46+/-2.1 cm average) passenger's side tests.
Keywords: Cadavers; PMHS; whole-body; kinematics; sled tests; frontal; airbag; restraints