Coefficients of correlation between certain physical properties and the histological components of the break area were calculated on an IBM 7090 computer for 56 femoral, 79 tibial and 37 fibular specimens of embalmed cortical bone of standardized size and shape. Strong positive correlations (0.01–0.02 significance level) were found between tensile strength and the percentage of interstitial lamellae in the break area; between hardness and the number of osteons/mm2; and between hardness and the percentage of osteons in the break area. Equally high negative correlations were found between tensile strength and percentage of osteons in the break area; between shearing strength and average area/osteon remnant; between elastic modulus and percentage of spaces in the break area; and an even higher correlation (0.001) between hardness and percentage of spaces in the break area. Negative correlations (at slightly more than 0.05 significance level) were found between shearing strength and modulus and average area/osteon. Osteons tend to reduce the tensile strength and elastic modulus of bone while interstitial lamellae tend to increase them. The probable reason is the relatively greater amount of cement lines, which are sites of weakness where failure can occur, in Haversian bone as compared with lamellar bone. The predominant orientation of collagen fibers and the amount and distribution of calcium may also be involved. These factors are now being investigated.