The use of artificial turf in the United States has created a dramatic increase in first metatarsophalangeal joint dorsiflexion injuries. Turf toe has been reported to occur in athletes who participate in sporting activities. An injury to the plantar capsular ligamentous complex can result in acute and chronic pain, resulting in time lost from sports participation for a short- or long-term period. Classification of this injury is based on clinical findings and imaging studies, including plain radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging. The early recognition of this injury is crucial to successful treatment. Nonoperative treatment may often suffice for incomplete injuries; however, surgery may be warranted for a complete plantar plate disruption or injury to one or both sesamoids. In the high-performance or elite athlete, a turf toe or severe dorsiflexion injury can be disabling, and can threaten an athlete’s career if not treated properly.
Keywords: hyperextension metatarsophalangeal joint; plantar plate; turf toe; fractured sesamoid; artificial turf; sesamoids