A series of vehicle-to-pole lateral impact tests were conducted using ES-2 and WorldSID dummies. Pure lateral (90°) and oblique (75°) impacts were included in the test series and the level of protection offered by the head protecting side airbag was assessed under each condition.
The head injury risks predicted by the ES-2 and WorldSID dummies under the same oblique pole test conditions were dramatically different, with the ES-2 indicating a low risk of head injury and the WorldSID indicating a very high risk of head injury. Sled tests were used to investigate the kinematics of the ES-2 shoulder, the consequent influence of shoulder load on head / neck kinematics, and the ability of this dummy to discriminate the level of head protection offered by head protecting side airbags. The head, neck, and shoulder kinematics and peak shoulder loads of the ES-2 were found to be highly sensitive to the direction of loading to the shoulder resulting from each pole impact angle.