Studies have shown that dummies can be used to study various issues relating to an unrestrained driver's interaction with the steering system in frontal crashes. However, current dummies have limitations in simulation of car occupants and to assess the spectrum of injury types and mechanisms. Human cadaver subjects were used to study abdominal injury and “severe” steering wheel deformation as part of an evaluation of energy absorbing steering systems.
A predominant factor influencing abdominal injury in these tests was the impact location of the lower rim, injury being associated with the rim aligned 50 mm below the xiphoid. The dummies developed approximately twice the impact force than the cadaver subjects in these severe tests with a noncompressible column, in part due to the chest of the dummies “bottoming” out on a rigid spine. Flexibility of the human spine resulted in the cadaver “inverting” the steering wheel rim below the hub in the most severe test with a noncompressible column. In contrast, the dummies did not invert the wheel rim inspite of much greater impact force. However, wheel deformations caused by the Hybrid III dummy were closer to those from the cadaver tests than wheel deformations caused by the Part 572 dummy.
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|1982||Sacreste J, Brun-Cassan F, Fayon A, Tarrière C, Got C, Patel A. Proposal for a thorax tolerance level in side impacts based on 62 tests performed with cadavers having known bone condition. In: Proceedings of the 26th Stapp Car Crash Conference. October 20-21, 1982; Ann Arbor, MI. Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers:155-171. SAE 821157.|
|1984||Horsch JD, Viano DC. Influence of the surrogate in laboratory evaluation of energy-absorbing steering system. In: Proceedings of the 28th Stapp Car Crash Conference. November 6-7, 1984; Chicago, IL. Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers:261-273. SAE 841660.|
|1989||Rouhana SW, Viano DC, Jedrzejczak EA, McCleary JD. Assessing submarining and abdominal injury risk in the Hybrid III family of dummies. In: Proceedings of the 33rd Stapp Car Crash Conference. October 4-6, 1989; Washington, DC. Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers:257-279. SAE 892440.|
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|1985||Horsch JD, Lau IV, Viano DC, Andrzejak DV. Mechanism of abdominal injury by steering wheel loading. In: Proceedings of the 29th Stapp Car Crash Conference. October 9-11, 1985; Washington, DC. Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers:69-78. SAE 851724.|
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|2003||van Don B, van Ratingen M, Bermond F, Masson C, Vezin P, Hynd D, Owen C, Martinez L, Knack S, Schaefer R. Biofidelity impact response requirements for an advanced mid-sized male crash test dummy. In: Proceedings of the 18th International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles (ESV). May 19-22, 2003; Nagoya, Japan.|
|2003||Kimpara H, Iwamoto M, Miki K, Lee JB, Begeman PC, Yang KH, King AI. Biomechanical properties of the male and female chest subjected to frontal and lateral impacts. In: Proceedings of the 2003 International IRCOBI Conference on the Biomechanics of Impact. September 25, 2003; Lisbon, Portugal.235-247.|
|1991||Horsch JD, Viano DC, DeCou J. History of safety research and development on the General Motors energy-absorbing steering system. In: Proceedings of the 35th Stapp Car Crash Conference. November 18-20, 1991; San Diego, CA. Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers:1-46. SAE 912890.|
|2002||Lee JB. Development of a Finite Element Model of the Human Abdomen [PhD thesis]. Detroit, MI: Wayne State University; 2002.|