Accident studies indicate that serious neck injuries are generally infrequent in side crashes. However, given the rapid changes in side impact protection technology, such as side airbags and curtain systems, the nature of head-neck interactions is likely to change. Consequently, the newest generation of anthropomorphic test devices for side impact should provide realistic prediction of the head-neck kinematics and include meaningful measurements related to risk of head and neck injury.
The WorldSID dummy has been assessed against a set of five test conditions that have been used to define biofidelity impact response targets. Three of the five test conditions are recommended by ISO TR9790 ( ISO 1997 ), the NBDL 7.2 G, 6.9 m/s lateral sled impact reported by Ewing et al. (1977) and Wismans et al. (1986) , the Patrick and Chou lateral, 6.7 G 5.8 m/s (1976) and Tarriere lateral 12.2 g, 6,1 m/s sled impact ( ISO 1997 ). Due to its expected loading environment, the dummy neck performance has also been evaluated for neck bending in frontal flexion and extension ( Mertz and Patrick, 1971 ). The 5 th test condition is the NBDL 45° frontal–oblique sled test ( Wismans 1986 , Philippens 2004 ). The latter and two of the ISO TR9790 test conditions form the basis of the draft IHRA requirements for evaluating side impact dummy biomechanical responses.
The paper reports on the findings of the assessment of the WorldSID pre-production dummy. The Mertz and Patrick OC moment-head angle corridor is used as supplemental requirement for frontal flexion-extension. The biofidelity requirements contain both kinematic and dynamic response targets. The neck has a good performance for NBDL lateral and Tarriere requirements, and the Mertz OC moment-flexion angle. The performance for the Patrick and Chou, the NBDL oblique test conditions and the Mertz OC moment extension angle are fair to marginal. The repeatability performance of the dummy was found to be good for all lateral and most oblique test parameters. The neck design does not allow much more further optimization without fundamental changes.