Various impact models have been used to study the injury mechanics of blunt trauma to diarthrodial joints. The current study was designed to study the relationship between impactor energy and mass on impact biomechanics and injury modalities for a specific test condition and protocol. A total of 48 isolated canine knees were impacted once with one of three free flight inertial masses (0.7, 1.5, or 4.8 kg) at one of three energy levels (2, 11, 22 J). Joint impact biomechanics (peak load, loading rate, contact area) generally increased with increasing energy. Injuries were typically more frequent and more severe with the larger mass at each energy level. Histological analyses of the patellae revealed cartilage injuries at low energy with deep injuries in underlying bone at higher energies.